I can fully attest to this being a problem. I noticed it when on site with a client and attempting to connect to our shared OneNote notebook on SharePoint 2010. I was "catching up" with stuff that occurred over the last couple of weeks and OneNote would crash each time I tried to sync. I even tried re-connecting to the OneNote notebook, but that also failed.
I opened Programs and Features and selected the View Installed Updates on the left and waited for Windows 7 to chunk through the multitude of updates. When it finally settles down you can enter KB3055034 in the search box and, if you’re lucky, it will show you the multiple times it’s installed. In my case it was four times: Visio, Project, Office and something else I don’t’ remember. I removed it four times and after it is gone syncing works again.
See how syncing works again?